Greek Style Yogurt

So this post is a follow up to my previous post on fresh homemade yogurt and you’ll want to check that one out if you haven’t already.

Greek style yogurt is deliciously thick and creamy.  You want to use whole milk for this yogurt.  If you’re worried about calories then exercise portion control, don’t sacrifice the quality of your yogurt.  Making Greek style yogurt is quite simple.  Follow the basic method for making yogurt. (If you want your whole batch to be Greek style and you aren’t setting some yogurt aside as a starter for your next batch, then you can incubate the yogurt right in the pot you used to heat the milk.  This actually minimizes risk of cross contamination and simplifies the process) 

Once the yogurt is finished incubating you want to strain it through a fine-weave cotton cloth while the yogurt is still warm.  Sterilize the cloth in boiling water (you can do this when you sterilize your utensils) and let it dry.  Line a collander or sieve of sufficient volume with the cloth, set the collander over a bowl and then pour your yogurt in the cloth.  What you are doing here is separating the curds of yogurt that have formed from the whey that is suspended in the gel structure of the yogurt.  In the photo below, notice the white “pieces” of yogurt curd beginning to separate from the yellowish whey.

 Straining Yogurt

For Greek style yogurt, you want to strain the curds until what is left in the cloth has decreased in volume by about one half.  If you continue to strain the yogurt until the curds are fairly dry you will have labneh, a.k.a. yogurt cheese.  If that’s what you are after, mix in a little salt and you’re ready to go.  Use it like cream cheese.

You can speed up the straining process by drawing the cloth together and hanging your “pouch” of yogurt.  If you don’t do this, then it is wise to fold the corners of the cloth over the yogurt to cover it.  To hang your straining yogurt, wrap a sturdy rubber band or some twine around the twisted cloth and then attach the other end to whatever you can find that will allow you to hang it over your bowl.  I used some metal rack shelves we have in the kitchen, attaching my rubber band to a chopstick set perpendicular to the rack, but you could also use the rack in your fridge or oven.  In fact, using your oven could allow you to continue to incubate the yogurt should you so desire.

 Straining Yogurt

Here’s the aerial view.

Straining Yogurt

It only took about an hour to reduce this batch (2 quarts) in half.  If you are unsure if the yogurt is done straining, take it down and open up the pouch to check the consistency of the yogurt.

 Strained Yogurt

As you can see in the above photo, the curds on the outside will be drier than what is in the middle.  Those solid bits on the edges are yogurt cheese.  Empty the contents of the cloth into a bowl and mix (I use a wisk) to restore an even consistency.

The bowl under the collander will be filled with whey.  You can use it as a replacement for water in bread recipes or follow some of the suggestions here.  Here’s a photo of the separated Greek style yogurt and whey.

 Curds and Whey

Use the yogurt just as you would regular yogurt.  My favorite application is simple frozen yogurt . . .

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Fresh Homemade Yogurt

Finished Yogurt

Yogurt is an amazing food—it’s delicious, good for you, and a great ingredient with tons of applications.  The fact is that when you make it at home it tastes better, is even better for you, and you’ll use it more (because you have it).  I first made yogurt following David Fankhauser’s directions and I recommend that you check them out, but I’ve adapted the process as I’ll describe below.

The idea behind yogurt is controlled bacterial fermentation.  If you just leave your milk out on the counter, chances are that you’ll be infiltrated with bacteria that won’t be nice to your milk and they’ll crowd out any good bacteria.  So the trick here is to eliminate the bad bacteria and to give the good bacteria an environment in which to thrive.  The key to pulling that off is good sanitation of your equipment, heating the milk to kill the bacteria present, and then holding the milk at a temperature at which yogurt making bacteria thrive.

First gather all your equipment.  I use 4 quart -size mason jars (along with a 1 cup jar for starting my next batch) and make a gallon of yogurt at a time, but you could do this for a single quart (4 cups).  You’ll also want a pyrex liquid measuring cup (at least 2 cups), a spoon for stirring, a wisk, an a nonreactive pot with a thick bottom (if you don’t trust your pot to distribute your stoves heat evenly and gently then you’ll want to use a double boiler), and a candy thermometer (sensitive from 0 to 225° F [-10 to 110 C]).  Sterilize your jars, lids, and any metal or glass utensils by boiling them in a large pot with about an inch of water for five minutes with the lid on.  You can do this in batches if it won’t all fit.  Plastic utensils can be sterilized using antibacterial dish soap, or better yet with a soak in water with a splash of chlorine bleach followed by a thorough rinse.

 Disinfecting

The ingredients are easy: milk and plain yogurt with live active cultures listed on the ingredients.  Concensus on the web supports using Dannon plain yogurt as a starter, but feel free to experiment with what is available to you.  The best yogurt will list only milk and cultures as ingredients.  I used Mountain High yogurt which makes a fairly thick and creamy yogurt.  You’ll find that the types of bacteria from different yogurts will bring about subtly different results.  As far as the milk goes, I highly recommend that you use whole milk and not less than 2%.  The fat helps make a creamier yogurt and when it drops below 2% it will be grainy.  It should go without saying that you want the freshest milk and yogurt possible—don’t even open the containers until just before you are ready to measure them out.

Measure out your milk into your pot, attach your thermometer, and slowly heat over low to medium until the milk reaches 185-195°F.  Be sure to stir regularly to ensure that the milk does not burn and stick to the bottom of the pot. What you are doing here is scalding the milk, which kills any bad bacteria that might be present in the milk, improves the flavor of the finished product, and makes for a thicker yogurt.  I’ve skipped this step before and ended up with a tasty, but runnier yogurt that was less successful at propogating subsequent batches.  Be careful not to let the milk exceed 195º because if it boils it will make a mess and your yogurt will have a “cooked” flavor.  As you begin heating the milk, turn your oven on to 200°.

 Heating Milk

From here you want to cool down the milk to the temperature at which you are going to incubate the yogurt.  Do this by creating an ice water bath in your sink or a large container and set the pot in.  Stirring the milk and stirring the ice water will lead to faster heat transfer and cool the milk faster.  The yogurt bacteria die at temperatures over 130° F and aren’t very active below 98° F.  I recommend cooling just to 130° F because the milk will continue to drop a few degrees after you remove the pot from the water.  We’re shooting for incubation at 122° F. 

 Cooling Milk

Once you hit 130° F, take the pot out and set it on the counter.  Pour 1 cup of the milk into a 2 cup Pyrex measuring cup and then add your yogurt to fill it to the 2 cup mark.  (This additional cup of volume goes into the 1 cup jar as a starter for the next batch)  Blend the yogurt with the milk in the cup with the wisk and then pour this into the pot of milk, stirring it thoroughly throughout the milk with the wisk.  Working quickly, pour the innoculated milk into your jars and put the lids on immediately.  Turn off the oven, place the jars in the oven, close the door, and turn on the oven light.  What you are looking for is to maintain the heat around the yogurt close to 122° F without exceeding 130° F. 

I find that by switching out my oven light with a 40 watt bulb and doing a preheat at 200° F it works out just right.  If you have a gas oven, the pilot light may complicate things.  You can test your oven by placing a jar filled with water in the oven and measuring the temperature of the water each hour for several hours (a remote probe thermometer is handy here).  Alternatively, you can follow Fankhauser’s method of putting the jars in a cooler and filling it to 3/4 the height of the jars with water heated to 122° F, checking occasionally and adding hot water as needed.  Absent these resources, wrap your jars in towels or blankets to insulate their current temperature.

Now you wait.  The bacteria are reproducing, consuming the milk sugars, and producing acid.  After 3-4 hours the yogurt should have gelled.  If it hasn’t, let it sit longer, up to 12 hours.  The longer the yogurt incubates the more tart it will taste.  The photo below is of yogurt incubated for 4 hours.  At this stage it is thick and creamy with just a hint of tartness.  The milk flavor really shines through.  6 hours takes you to the typical tartness you find in grocery store yogurt (but with superior overall flavor).  If I’m making it just for me, I usually go for 8-10 hours, but my wife likes it less tart.

 Finished Yogurt

It’s not a bad idea to let the yogurt sit on the counter to cool for about an hour before you put it in the refrigerator, since the jars would heat up everything in the refrigerator initially.  Remember that the bacteria will still be working during that time, so factor it in as you consider your preferred tartness.  Once the yogurt is fully chilled in the refrigerator it is ready to eat.

I highly recommend that you try it plain.  Discover what yogurt really tastes like when it is not turned into candy.  I’ve learned to love plain yogurt.  As you develop a taste for real yogurt, you will have a better gauge of how much fruit and sweetener you might add when you do use them.  A spoonful of jam is an easy way to do fruit and sugar thing.  A better way is to add your favorite fresh fruit and honey or agave nectar to taste.  I once added the juice and zest of an orange along with a teaspoon of honey to a bowl of yogurt and had one of the most sublime breakfasts in recent memory.

Later this week I’ll post how to make greek style yogurt, along with several other ways of using your yogurt.

The Art of Simple Food

The Art of Simple Food

Alice Waters has finally written a book for cooks like me—cooks who aren’t chefs and who don’t have access to the diversity of exotic ingredients available in Berkeley.  The book is called The Art of Simple Food: Notes, Lessons, and Recipes from a Delicious RevolutionIt is by far my favorite cookbook of 2007.

If you don’t already know who Alice Waters is, this is a great introduction (try this too).  Her basic philosophy is that the best cooking is based on using the best and tastiest ingredients and preparing them simply.  This book is intended to help people learn to cook or to be better cooks by gathering the best ingredients and using techniques that let them shine.

Part one of the book is called “Starting from Scratch” and consists of lessons and basic recipes that allow you to try what she is teaching in the lessons.  Waters begins with a list of what she sees as the basic underlying principles of good cooking and eating.  They are:

  • Eat locally and sustainably.
  • Eat seasonally.
  • Shop at farmers’ markets.
  • Plant a garden.
  • Conserve, compost, and recycle.
  • Cook simply, engaging all your senses.
  • Cook together.
  • Eat together.
  • remember food is precious.

She follows this with an in depth discussion of the most important ingredients and how to pick the very best ones.  This, along with her subsequent discussion of cooking equipment, is my favorite part of the book.  She gives all of the relevant details that will help you make more of your pantry and fridge without going over budget.  The chapters that follow cover menus, four essential sauces, salads, bread, broth and soup, beans (dried and fresh), pasta and polenta, rice, roasting, pan frying, slow cooking, simmering, grilling, omelets and souffles, tarts (savory and sweet), fruits and deserts, custard and ice cream, and cookies and cake.  Each chapter is a great read and hugely informative.  I’m almost embarrassed to admit that I stayed up until almost 4:00 a.m. the night I got the book because I couldn’t put it down.  Seriously, buy this book even if you only read part one.

Part two is called “At the Table” and is loaded with recipes for everyday cooking that rely on the principles taught in part one.  They are great recipes and they give you a lot to practice on as you refine the skills Waters teaches.

The recipe I’ve used the most so far is the Risotto Bianco from the chapter on rice.

 Risotto

It is very basic and quite delicious.  Here is my adaptation:

  • In a 3qt saucepan melt 2T butter and saute 1 small onion, diced fine, until the onion is soft and translucent.  If you have it, add a pinch of saffron to the cooking onions.
  • Add 1 1/2c Arborio or other risotto rice and cook, stirring, until translucent
  • Meanwhile, bring 5c chicken broth to a boil in a separate pan and then turn off the heat
  • When rice is translucent, pour over 1/2c dry white wine and cook, stirring, until all of the wine is absorbed.
  • Add 1c chicken broth at a time and cook at a vigorous simmer, stirring occasionally.
  • When the rice gets thick, scale back to 1/2c doses of broth and begin to salt
  • After about 12 minutes start tasting the rice for doneness and seasoning
  • You want tender rice with a hint of al dente firmness (20-30 minutes total)
  • With the final addition of broth add just enough to finish the rice without making it soupy
  • When rice is nearly done add 1T butter and 1/3c grated Parmesan cheese (only the real stuff here).
  • Stir vigorously to develop the creamy starch .  Turn off the heat, let sit for 2 minutes, and serve.

 
Risotto closeup

Try this recipe, but please buy the book.  Waters has so much more to offer than just good recipes.

Restaurant Review: Pizzeria Seven Twelve

712 chefs

Pizzeria Seven Twelve may very well be the best restaurant in Utah Valley.  I’d maybe expand that geographic region, but they’re all about local food so why bother.  On their website, the chefs/owners (Joe and Colton) explain that the restaurant arose out of the desire for sustainability.  They say they want to change the way restaurants run.  I say “let them!”  These guys know what they are doing.  The best part is that I can afford to eat there.  No food snobbery here.

On the wall hangs a quote from Alice Waters: “When you have the best and tastiest ingredients, you can cook very simply and the food will be extraordinary because it tastes like what it is.”  The best and tastiest ingredients, as Waters has so persuasively demonstrated, are most often found locally and in season.  It might be a bit of a hard sell that you can find such wonderful local ingredients in Utah Valley since most local food production is for export, but these guys have done a great job of making use of what’s available.  Hopefully their success will persuade more local food producers to make high quality seasonal food available to restaurants and consumers alike.

712 chefs

One of the great features of the restaurant is the wood fired oven imported from Europe (I guess we haven’t yet perfected those locally yet) where they do virtually all of the restaurant’s cooking.  As you can see, the oven is out front and you get to see the chefs living it up as they do their thing.  Both times I’ve been there they’ve really seemed to be enjoying themselves. 

In their quest for fresh and fine ingredients they do some of their own food production, making their own sausage as well as mozzarella and ricotta cheeses.

Their dinner menu consists of “A Little Something . . .” (not quite appetizers, not quite entrees), “Greens . . .” (salad), “Pizza . . .”, and “Sweet . . .” (dessert).  My wife and I have found that ordering one thing from each category to share leaves us perfectly satisfied.  Well, almost each category.  We haven’t yet gotten dessert–we fill up on the savory stuff.  We’ll have to pace ourselves next time.

From “A Little Something . . .” you HAVE to order the short ribs. 

Shortribs

Try it all, but don’t miss these.  They cook them overnight in a big pot sitting in the embers of the previous day’s fire.  They are served over a square of perfect polenta and topped with horseradish cream an au jus.  The meat is so tender that my wife and I ignore our knives and just use our forks to pull off a piece.  The horseradish cream adds just a hint of tangingess and will win over anyone who thinks they do not like horseradish (like my wife).  The polenta is the best I’ve had–I’m pretty sure there are tiny bits of fresh corn in there along with the coarse corn meal.  This is a dish you will wake up in the middle of the night craving.

Tonight we ordered the fresh house made mozarella salad.

 Mozz and greens

It is very simply prepared with the cheese over bitter greens and breadcrumb croutons, all dressed with a lemon olive oil vinaigrette.  Clearly the cheese is the star of this dish and it really shines.  A fair dose of salt and the sweetness of the lemons mellows out the bitterness of the greens and brings the flavors together, while the bread crumbs provide a nice crunchy texture.

We also got their pizza topped with prosciutto, soppressata (a thin sliced sausage-type meat), garlic, and tomato.  It was divine.

 712 pizza

See that char on the crust?  That is exactly what you are looking for in a good pizza cooked in a wood-fired oven.  Don’t you dare send it back.  I think that my favorite thing about this pizza was that every element of it was superb.  I would take a bite and be struck the exquisite flavor of the tomato, noting how the other ingredients compliment it so well.  But the next bite would feature the meat in just the same way, then the garlic, then the cheese, then the crust.  It was perfect.

The tragedy of the night was that we didn’t get dessert.  All of their desserts look amazing.  We love panna cotta and are set on trying that one, but the brownie sundae and the fruit cobbler look just as good.

Tonight was our second visit to the restaurant and we were both happy (because we like the philosophy of seasonality) and sad to see that some of the tasty items we had last time were not on the menu.  The particular stand-out was the sweet potato off “A Little Something . . .”  It features roasted bite sized pieces of sweet potato served tossed with spinach (barely wilted by the potatoes), matchsticks of thick cut bacon, pecan halves, and a vinaigrette.  So simple and so delicious. 

We’ve actually made our own copycat version of it several times to rave reviews (although it still lacked that certain something that it had at the restaurant).  Try it, you’ll like it. 

  • Peel 2 sweet potatoes and cut them into pieces
  • Toss with olive oil and roast in oven at 350-400° (or 712°?) until the edges just begin to brown
  • cut several pieces of thick cut bacon (the best you can find) into matchsticks and cook them until nicely browned.
  • As the bacon begins to cook, toss in a handful of pecans.  Be generous here.
  • Put the bacon and pecans on a paper towel to drain the fat.
  • Toss it all over several handfuls of baby spinach and dress with a basic olive oil vinaigrette (1:4 vinegar:oil, seasoned with salt and pepper, mustard if you like it)

I’d love it if we could get some advice from the folks at P712 on where to get good local ingredients for home cooking in Utah Valley (and any tips or corrections to the recipe if they’re feeling generous).  If we don’t hear from them in the comments here I’ll have to ask them the next time I’m there.

Be sure to check out their website as well as their blog.  This food is based on some really good food philosophy and you’ll want to hear it from the horse’s mouth.

English Muffins with Five Minute a Day Dough

English Muffins on display

This morning I was craving something more than cereal or toast for breakfast and it struck me that I had everything I needed for english muffins.  Here’s how you do it:

First, you want to check my post on Herzberg and Francois’ book Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day, where you’ll find their basic recipe. Cut off a hunk of dough (preferably dough that has had at least a day to develop flavor in the fridge), cut it into pieces, and shape them into 3-4 inch disks, about 1/4-1/2 inches thick.  Let them rise for about 20 minutes.  

Muffins shaped and rising 

Preheat a cast iron skillet, a griddle, or the next best thing you’ve got (everyone has a frying pan, right?) over low heat.  Sprinkle it with course corn meal (I used polenta), and get your muffins in the pan. 

Muffins on the griddle 

Cook for about 10 minutes, turning them every few minutes.  They should be a deep brown on both sides and the edges should be clearly cooked.  As you can see, they get big and puffy as they cook.  Split them with a fork and slather them with butter.  They are superior in every way to the muffins you get at the store, and they’re super easy.  My wife thought she didn’t like english muffins until she tried these.  I don’t know why they left this one out of the cookbook.

Summertime Baked Potatoes

Baked Potato

The days are getting warmer and a hot oven can make the kitchen pretty uncomfortable.  Here’s a trick for baking potatoes without heating up the kitchen. 

Prepare the potatoes as usual by rubbing with olive oil, sprinkling with salt, wrapping in foil, and piercing a few times with a fork.  Then place them in a crock pot set on high for a few hours or low for a longer roast.  They cook up beautifully, becoming nice and sweet with the long slow roast.  I imagine that this should work for roasting other things wrapped in foil as well.  Please comment if you have any experience to add.

Getting my hands dirty

Garden ready for planting

This last weekend I finally put in my “garden.”  I know, I know . . . it’s more of a flower bed than a garden, but you should see what I get out of this flower bed.  Pretty impressive for apartment dwelling if I say so myself.  This is my first year starting everything from seed.  I worry that I started my tomatoes a bit late, but other than that things are looking good.  If it all comes up then I’ll have tomatoes, eggplant, squash, cucumbers, cantaloupes, radishes, beets, carrots, beans, Swiss chard, corn, lettuce, arugula, spinach, basil, parsley, and cilantro.  I missed a spring planting, but I’m hoping to get some cold weather crops in for a fall harvest.

Garden Planted

This is the garden with my seedling planted.  Here’s to more green and less brown in my next garden update.

As you may have noticed, I am using the square foot gardening method and I highly recommend it to you as well.  Mel Bartholomew’s All New Square Foot Gardening is a great resource, even if you choose not to go the square foot route.  Mel is willing to spell out precisely what to do to have a productive garden, and that can be nice.  But don’t be afraid to break some of his rules (as I have) to suit your needs.  I’m especially excited to try his technique of building vertical supports for tomatoes, cantaloupes, cucumbers, and squash.